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Notion of Citizenship and Belonging-Criminology

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This essay need to address concepts and research only based in the UK & Wales . 1-  How are police involved in surveillance of borders ? 2-  What roles does the police have in addressing the notion of citizenship and belonging. ( policing belonging – race and nationally ( Parmars reading and much more research ) how do the police identify non-citizens . • What does Parmar mean by the argument that ‘notions of belonging are racialized through interactions with the police’ ) address the concept on how one can be seen as “British “ and one is questioned about their nationality due to their skin colour . 3- Are all citizens equal in the UK  how are the police playing there role in this ? (Are the police held accountable for criminalising minority and ethnic groups based primarily on their religion and skin colour ? ) 4- How and why has it been an increase in public enlistment to police immigration. ( are the public cajoled into performing immigration policing ? ) 5- Are operation nexus and secure communities legitimate forms of policing ? ( operation nexus , race and national belonging. nexus high harm ) What legal safeguards and protections are in place for those targeted by Operation Nexus?  • Is it legitimate to deport someone on the basis of police ‘intelligence’? What about if they have been convicted of a serious offence? The ones in bolt pounds and () are what MUST be included in the sections and then more information and research to elaborate the sections at hand . The work MUST include referencing and use of research from the following CORE readings . – Aliverti-Enlisting the public . – Parmar – Policing belonging . – Weber & Bowling – Policing Migration. – Deporting high harm foreign criminals – Operation Nexus . To keep your essay focused on answering the specific question you have been asked, I would suggest looking back at the essay question after each paragraph you write, and thinking: am I still answering the question? How has the paragraph I have just written help me to answer the question I am addressing? MUST use and engage with the core articles and readings that have been provided as that initiates the passing mark and it will also help you to keep your essay focused on the specific question you’re tackling. – i.e. the increasing involvement of the police in England and Wales in the management and regulation of immigration. So, as a starting point you should look at the required readings for Week 4 of the course, where we studied the policing of migration. In particular, the chapter by Alpa Parmar listed in the Module Guide, entitled ‘Policing migration: Race and nation in the UK’ is a very important reading, which will help you to develop an answer to the question you have chosen. As you will see, in her chapter Parmar writes about issues including why the police decide to question certain people in police custody about their immigration status. She notes how someone’s darker skin colour often prompted the police to ask if they were British or not. As a consequence, Parmar argues that the policing of migration reflects and reproduces an exclusionary notion of belonging and citizenship, in which Britishness is very much associated with whiteness/lighter skin colour. This is a really important starting point for your essay, as the question is asking you to consider how the police’s involvement in migration control influences notions of citizenship and belonging, with specific attention to issues of race and racism.